A01: Stone Money – Walmaarts

There is a very well know saying that states “money makes the world go round”. Currency or money in my opinion is the “root to all evil” but at the same time we couldn’t live without it. We all know that money comes in different forms. There’s the US dollar, the Euro and sometimes other forms like cryptocurrencies. The way that most of the world looks at money today is mainly through numbers. Think about it. In the United States say an employee gets their pay check which is around 20$. That 20$ gets transferred right into your back account. In most situation the United States money is in the hand of the banks and never physically in someones possession. That’s when I heard about the island of Yap. A whole new way to look at money.

In the Western Pacific Island of Yap the world “currency” is slightly different that our definition of the word. This form of currency isn’t your average paper note. The Island of Stone Money,” explains that the currency is a giant limestone discs. Some discs “diameter can measure a foot or twelve feet, each with varying sizes of holes in the middle.” In fact, this form of currency is a “really heavy” “big piece that could weigh more than a car”. Although unusual this form of money does share some similarities with the currency that all modern countries use today.

Currency in Yap is a “big limestone disc” because of this the currency isn’t exactly easy to move. Because of this money isn’t tosses and transported around like in the United States. In fact an NPR article called ” The Island Of Stone Money” stated that “They often talk about the stones themselves not changing hands at all”. Meaning that if I wanted a stone and it was on someone else’s property I could own the Rai or Fei (stone currency) without physically transporting it to another place.

Now let’s talk about the United States. At one point in time France wanted gold from the United States. The United States didn’t want to physical send over gold to the French but instead the United States kept in its possession and just labeled it as Frances gold. France accepted this offer and instantly showed the public how valuable currency can be. The physical item doesn’t actually have to be in the possession of a nation, state or person just assigned to that person.

Continuing our conversation on the United States this brings me into another point on how the United States runs currency in their country and honestly it isn’t very different than the yaps. As stated in “The Invention of Money” the United States uses the “federal reserve bank” to hold all of our money. They also have to ability to create money. The Yaps do this the same way. They can make a new limestone disc and have it not really effect the everyday lives of people. When the United States creates money everyones money is still reserved under the FDIC. Similarly, the word of the people keeps these disc possessed properly on the island of Yap.

Friedman, Milton. “The Island of Stone Money.” The Island of Stone Money(1991): 3-7. Web. 10 Sept. 2016.

Glass, Ira, Chana Joffe-Walt, Alex Blumberg, and Dave Kestenbaum. “423: The Invention of Money.” This American Life. Prod. Planet Money. 7 Jan. 2011. This American Life. Web. 11 Sept. 2016.

Goldstein, Jacob, and David Kestenbaum. “The Island Of Stone Money.” NPR, NPR, 10 Dec. 2010, http://www.npr.org/sections/money/2011/02/15/131934618/the-island-of-stone-money.

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Lifetime Guarantee

Frankly, I’ll be disappointed if you don’t contact me for something.


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Visual Rhetoric—torthey

Assignment A05 has nothing to do with your research project, torthey. It’s a standalone requirement of the Writing Arts department. Demonstrate that your literacy skills extend beyond the merely verbal and incorporate visual literacy to keep pace with contemporary communications.

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The assignment for A12: Reflective Statement contains everything you’ll need to do a good job with this post, torthey, including a cut-and-paste section to assure formatting compliance. Make a compelling argument that you learned and follow the Core Values of the Writing Arts program.

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Your classmates have done very creditable Bibliographies, torthey, which you can use as models if you need them. 15 Sources, including many academic sources, identified in traditional bibliographic form, but with additions, including the essential “How I Used It” notations.

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Reflective – wentzwagon11

Core Value I. My work demonstrates that I used a variety of social and interactive practices that involve recursive stages of exploration, discovery, conceptualization, and development.

I met this goal through the use of consistent research combined with a general social empathy and understanding how things work. It’s easy to just look on the internet and read what something is all about, but it takes actually knowledge and comprehension to draw your own conclusions on a topic based off of what you see for yourself. The constant revision of my Research argument is where I demonstrated this diversity and inventiveness. Especially when I decide to do my own independent research study to support my argument.

Core Value II. My work demonstrates that I placed texts into conversation with one another to create meaning by synthesizing ideas from various discourse communities. 

My Visual Rhetoric paper is a good example of how I execute this core value. I painted a vivid picture of the ad that was being played and drew strong conclusions that could spark new ones from readers. Other people watching this ad silently and pausing every few seconds could follow along with my writing and draw their own conclusions from what I had to say. It is important that you write in a way that sparks active thinking within your readers.

Core Value III. My work demonstrates that I rhetorically analyzed the purpose, audience, and contexts of my own writing and other texts and visual arguments.

My Stone Money paper is an example of how I reflected this core value. I couldn’t have completed this paper without reading what others had to say first. It was a very social process of seeing what other people thought and applying that to my own logic. It’s important that writing be a creative and social process because at the end of the day your opinion alone cannot shape everyone else’s opinions.

Core Value IV: My work demonstrates that I have met the expectations of academic writing by locating, evaluating, and incorporating illustrations and evidence to support my own ideas and interpretations.

My Definition Argument paper is an example of how I incorporated my own ideas into my writing. While I did argue using statistics and facts I was still able to clearly represent my hypothesis on what I thought the outcome would be. It is crucial to a strong argument that a paper have sufficient and solid evidence to support a point.

Core Value V. My work demonstrates that I respect my ethical responsibility to represent complex ideas fairly and to the sources of my information with appropriate citation. 

My Rebuttal Argument paper is a perfect example of presenting my ideas fairly and responsibly. I start off by arguing the counterpoint strongly, but I then give all my evidence towards my point. In order for a paper to be truly unbiased it must be represented in a fair way. Both sides must have a say that is clearly represented in the writing. This not only makes a stronger argument, but it make for a more compelling paper over all.



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Bibliography – wentzwagon11

  1. Birnbaum, Phil. “A Guide to Sabermetric Research.” A Guide to Sabermetric Research | Society for American Baseball Research. N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Feb. 2017.

Background: Phil Birnbaum is a certified expert in all things Saber metrics. In this article he dives into what the era of saber metrics mean. He also talks about some of the basics in Saber metrics like WAR.

How I used it: I used this article for the bulk of my information on Saber Metrics. Whenever I was lost or didn’t really understand something I could revert back to this article to get a better idea.


  1. Glassey, Conor, and 2010 August 18. “Majors: Best Tools: Scouts On Scouting: What They Look For In A Player.” BaseballAmericacoms RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Feb. 2017.

Background: Conor Glassey in this article talked about the general rules on what to look for in modern day scouting. This was a guidebook on how scouts actually applied the eye-test. He talked about what specific tools were most important when looking for the next star.

How I used it: I used this article for the bulk of my eye test information. Just like the first source I spent a lot of time referring back to this source to gather more information and better understand certain concepts.


3 .Hagen, Paul. “New and Old School Coming Together in Baseball Talent

Evaluation.”Major League Baseball. N.p., 14 Mar. 2013. Web. 06 Feb. 2017.

Background: This article by Paul Hagen was all about what it would be to blend the two methods of scouting. He goes on to predict what a team assembled this way might look like. He also goes on to talk about how a team would apply the hybrid method and the rules they should follow.

How I used it: I used this article to try and predict how a hybrid method would work out. I also applied what I read to predict what the team assembled would look like.


  1. Reuter, Joel. “MLB Position-by-Position 2016 Player Rankings at Quarter Pole.” Bleacher Report. Bleacher Report, 12 Apr. 2017. Web. 20 Apr. 2017.

Background: This site was just a list done by bleacher report to recognize who the best players at every position were after a quarter of the season had expired.

How I used it: I used this as a tool to help determine the value of each player in each scouting system.


  1. Reuter, Joel. “MLB Position-by-Position Player Power Rankings, August Edition.” Bleacher Report. Bleacher Report, 12 Apr. 2017. Web. 20 Apr. 2017.

Background: This is also a list done by bleacher report ranking players by position. This one however is a much smaller sample of 1 month rather than a quarter of a season.

How I used it: I used this list to compare to the other list to see if the same players were ranked consistently high.


  1. Paine, Neil. “Where Sabermetrics And the ‘Eye Test’ Disagree.” FiveThirtyEight. FiveThirtyEight, 14 Mar. 2016. Web. 06 Feb. 2017.

Background: This article, by Neil Paine, was written to show the differences between the eyetest and saber metrics. He went in to detail with how both methods are executed and then he compared and contrasted them.

How I used it: I used this article for further research on both methods of scouting. I also used this to further understand how different the methods really were and what each represented to its era.


  1. Reubenfb. “The Best MLB Teams Of All-Time, According To Elo.” FiveThirtyEight. FiveThirtyEight, 10 May 2016. Web. 20 Apr. 2017.

Background: This is simply a site that shows all the highest ranked teams of all time.

How I used it: I used it to help find the most dominate teams that derived from either method of scouting


  1. Weinberg, Neil. “How to Evaluate a Hitter, Sabermetrically.” Beyond the Box Score. Beyond the Box Score, 26 May 2014. Web. 06 Feb. 2017.

Background: This article is one that divulges into the deep thoughts of a scout. It shows what scouts are thinking and what they’re looking for when watching a hitter.

How I used it: I used this to back up the argument for the eye-test and to explain why there are some things that only a trained eye and not statistics can see.



  1. “What Is MLB SimMatchup?” SimMatchup Baseball – Free MLB Matchup and Baseball Sim Games. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Apr. 2017.

Background: This website is one that allows you to create teams and play them against each other in simulated games. You can make all kinds of rules for how your team is selected including how high the salary cap may be.

How I used it: I used this site to do an independent study on which version of scouting would lead to a better team.


  1. “1927 Yankees Reported Salaries.” 1927 Yankees – Reported Salaries. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Apr. 2017.

Background:  This site was just a list of all the salaries from the 1927 Yankees team that was home to Murderer’s Row

How I used it: I used this site to find out how much the Yankees had to spend to build a team of superstars using the eye-test. It ended up being significantly more than any other team could spend.

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Visual Rhetoric – wentzwagon11

  • 0:00-0:01 The Ad starts of in an ambulance with two injured men inside along with a male and a female EMT. One of the men is more seriously hurt and is being attended to by the EMT’s. The camera then focuses in on the man who is less injured’s face. He looks extremely upset as if he knew the man on the table and he was close. Their injuries look like ones that would be consistent with a car accident.
  • 0:03-0:08 The man on the table beings to die as the EMT’s struggle to save him. The less injured man begins to calm down slightly and starts talking to himself. He seems to be trying to put his mind at ease about something. He then begins to sob once again even more than before. His body language suggested that he was talking to try and forgive himself or justify something he did. He then realized that he couldn’t and began to cry again.
  • 0:09-0:16 The man begins to cry and he puts his face in his hand. The EMT’s then look at up at him and stop working on the man on the table. The look at him surprised. It looked like he said something that offended them since they stopped working. The EMT’s were focused on their patient, but then in response to what that less injured man said they stopped working and looked at him. The male EMT then said something back to the less injured man and after he said it his body relaxed and he seemed calm. Now it seemed that what the man said put the EMT’s at ease.
  • 0:17-0:19 The patient on the table who was dying sits up and begins to speak. This event that would clearly be shocking and perhaps frightening doesn’t seem to stun anybody in the ambulance. The man shot up and was miraculously healed, and unless one of the EMT’s was Jesus this would be am upsetting event. This could also suggest that the mans injuries weren’t to serious because of what the other less injured man said. Maybe what the less injured man said had something to do with the seriousness of the accident they were in.
  • 0:22-0:25 After the man has been sitting up the camera focuses on the faces of everyone and there is a general sense of calmness coming from their facial expressions. It seems like everything is okay or that nothing really happened. The more injured mans face is still badly cut and he is wearing a neck brace. He is however talking and is very calm and sitting upright. Then suddenly the man drops down on the table again and the EMT’s again being to work on him. All of the sudden he’s dying again and the less injured man is again crying hysterically. It seems like the situation is back to reality and everything that is supposed to happen is happening all over again.
  • 0:26-0:31 The less injured man is crying again and the other man is dying, while the EMT’s try and save his life. As everything is going down a message pops up that says, “Buzzed driving is drunk driving”. This message clarifies that everything that went down was a result of drunk driving. It can be assumed that the less injured man was the driver, while the other man was a passenger. The less injured man was crying out of guilt because he was drunk driving, and his friend got hurt as a result. He must have said something along the line of “i was just buzzed” when he spoke midway. Then the EMT’s must have responded and gave the impression that the more injured man was fine. Then that same man sat up to indicate that he really was. However this was not the reality, and once this was realized every part of the situation went back to normal. It was to prove that just because you were just buzzed doesn’t mean that the consequences are any less severe. That is where the ad gets all of its power and meaning.


Ad Council

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Definition Argument – wentzwagon11

Wins Above Replacement in baseball is a statistic that is meant to represent a player’s true value to his team. In reality it means much more than that. WAR represents a revolution in the way that players in the MLB are evaluated. It represents the movement of advanced statistics into modern day scouting. Gone will be the days of the eye test and in will come he world of Saber Metrics, but it all started with one simple, yet very complex, stat. One stat changed the game, as we know it and redefined what it meant to be a valuable player, and determined who was actually the most valuable player in the league. This stat that would change it all is known as WAR.

WAR is a culmination of all the things a player does that earn or save runs. A player with a good WAR can be either solid defensively or solid offensively. A player with a great WAR is one who can do both. The way WAR is calculated is by adding up all RBI’s, runs, runs saved, and runs stolen on the base paths. Then one must divide that total by the league average. The number that is left is the player’s WAR statistic. Players with a good offensive WAR scored and bat in a lot of runs, and players with a good defensive WAR make consistent plays in the field that prevent runs from scoring. This is the reason WAR is becoming one of the most, if not the most, relevant stat while determining a players value.

WAR is by no means a simple stat as can be seen from the former paragraph. It’s very science oriented and takes a lot of effort to calculate. This is the reason why a lot of old school baseball minds are reluctant to adapt. The argument is that while this shows all of the numbers a player may put up, the only way to truly see a players value is to see it in real life. You need to see the great plays and clutch hits in order to really see how valuable a player is. While there is some merit to that overall numbers do tell a story of how a player truly preforms.

Mike Trout is widely considered to be the best player in baseball. To put this into perspective, Mike Trout has a WAR of 10 or more in every season. The Average WAR of an All-Star is somewhere between 5 and 6. Mike Trout is almost twice as good as any player in the major leagues according to WAR. While old minds wouldn’t say he’s that much better than the rest of the competition, they would have to admit he is the best player in the league. This means that WAR can accurately predict who the best player in the league is. This would also mean that for the players who scouts can’t seem to choose one over the other, this stat could be used to determine who carries more value to the team. WAR is slowly being incorporated into the league and as WAR is getting comfortable, there are many other new age stats trying to stake their claim in the MLB.

Saber metrics is the category under which all of the new age stats reside. The people who study and develop Saber metrics are usually smarter than the average front office executive but don’t hold much of a general knowledge for how the game is played. Statisticians that sit behind computers are the ones developing these stats. That fact is the thing that scares the old minds the most. They don’t want to see their beloved game turn into men reading stats from behind a computer screen. That is the era that WAR represents.

While WAR has a clear-cut definition in how it defines a player’s value to his team it also represents a new era of advanced statistics. WAR is only the first step into the evolution of Baseball, as we know it. First it will be WAR then it will be every other random culmination of stats one could think of. Even with the fear from the old minds in the game, WAR could be a step into a simpler time. One that makes choosing between two closely matched players easier. WAR can be defined as a new beginning for the game of baseball.


Works Cited

Birnbaum, Phil. “A Guide to Sabermetric Research.” A Guide to Sabermetric Research | Society for American Baseball Research. N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Feb. 2017.


Glassey, Conor, and 2010 August 18. “Majors: Best Tools: Scouts On Scouting: What They Look For In A Player.” BaseballAmericacoms RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Feb. 2017.



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Research Argument- torthey

In 2005 the Supreme Court decided that executing children younger than 18 years old was unconstitutional due to their neurobiological immaturity. Executing someone for a crime based upon their biological age is considered unconstitutional and yet an 11 year old can be tried as an adult for a crime and spend the rest of their life in prison without the possibility of parole and that doesn’t infringe on the notion of constitutionality.

Cognitive behaviorists have proven years ago that adolescents seek out risk and have difficulty regulating their emotions. The issue arises then about the cognitive development of individuals. Gender, environmental influences and genetics all play a part in brain development. For instance, adolescents develop the capability for logical reasoning before self-regulatory abilities; they’re able to see that a behavior is wrong before they’re able to resist the urge to engage in the activity. Developing these skills at different times allows for expectations to be placed upon certain ages. We trust 16-year-olds to drive but not vote, so the notion of at what age we become responsible is blurred. This makes for a society that is unique to the United States. Other countries don’t have the same staggered maturation process that the U.S. does. This leaves the courts open to dole out punishments for crimes committed by children as if they were adults with their full mental faculties in place, blurring the lines about what being an adult really means.

What it means to be an “adult” can have two definitions; one regarding someone’s chronological age and another in respect to maturity. Within the Supreme Court, a person is generally considered to be an adult when they reach the age of 18 years old. However, when a person under that age has committed murder, all definitions of adulthood go out the window and biological children can face life without parole. In spite of scientific and sociological research regarding juvenile capability, certain states will still try children as adults regardless of their age.

On June 29, 20015, Jarrell Milton, Jamar Milton and Shauntayvious Primes-Willis (aged 12, 17, and 15, respectively) were involved in a gang-related shooting over a drug deal where Jamymell Ray, 31, was killed in Omaha, Nebraska. Jamar and Shauntayvious were apprehended immediately following the crime but Jarrell wasn’t arrested until 10 days later, all the way in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Prosecutors say that Ray and friend Charles Fisher, who was injured but later released from the hospital, had arranged to meet the kids in a park to sell them marijuana when they were hit by gunfire. Prosecutors said Wednesday that they plan to charge Jarrell and two teen accomplices with first-degree murder as adults; “All three suspects had guns. There were shell casings from two different types of guns at the scene,” Douglas County District Attorney Don Kleine said, adding that the victim was shot at close range.

Setting the legal bar so high for adolescent offenders is morally bankrupt. A 13 year old may be tried in the courts as an adult for a crime yet have none of the rights as a legal adult. Children aren’t considered mature enough to drink, smoke, gamble, engage in consenting sexual activity or go to war but they can legally spend the rest of their lives in prison because of their alleged culpability for a crime. Its confounding that all responsibility of a crime should be placed upon the shoulders of a child without granting them all the rights as a legal adult.

Developmentally speaking, the fact that the District Attorney is even entertaining the notion of trying a pre-teen as an adult for a Murder I charge is horrifying. There is irrefutable scientific research that proves that a person that young cognitively cannot comprehend the impact of his actions. Jarrell Milton is pre-pubescent which means that his neurological cognitive functioning makes it physiologically impossible for him to consider the long term consequences of his actions. At puberty, a child’s Limbic System experiences an increase in dopamine levels while, conversely, the amygdala becomes extremely underactive. This opposing relationship cause a drastic increase in adolescent risk-taking and delinquent behaviors. This biologically programmed poor decision making is exacerbated by the presence of one’s peers. The prosecution’s theory that Jarrell Milton had been complicit in a premeditative plan to lure a man to the park so that they could attempt a robbery is idiotic. Children are physically, biologically and neurologically incapable of making the same informed critical thinking as an adult, therefore, it is essentially immoral and unethical to try a child as an adult.

Neurobiological immaturity aside, Jarrell Milton suffered from so many traumatic Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) that his brain most likely was under-developed compared to a neuro-typically developing peer without prior ACEs. Scientific research has proven that adolescent trauma negatively affects neurological development. As a toddler, Jarrell’s mother was incarcerated for felony assault and Jarrell, along with this 7 siblings, were sent to live in state run foster care. Jarrell’s father is also currently serving a life sentence in prison for a murder conviction as a result of a drug deal gone wrong, exactly the same crime and charges that his 12-year-old son is now facing. This child grew up surrounded by crime, gangs and violent peer influence that detrimentally affected his neurological and social development. Gangs, such as the Nike Street Gang that Jarrell, his brother and also his cousins are a part of, are notorious for exploiting their young members for carrying out crimes because they would receive less time in jail because of their ages. The lack of family stability that Jarrell has experienced for his entire short life made him a perfect target for the manipulative “family” of a gang.

The neglect, unstable housing, out of home placements, family disorganization and overall household dysfunction Jarrell has faced because of both of his parents’ individual incarcerations and the resulting clear lack of supervision because of his absentee parents is evident in Jarrell’s ability to obtain a firearm and maintain his gang affiliation without any reported parental intervention. Before this crime was even committed, Jarrell Milton had five serious environmental Adverse Childhood Experiences, which leads us to safely be able to assume that the shooting was not simply due to his gang’s peer pressure (which I consider an extremely dismissive term for something so maladaptive), but also a result of the severe physiological trauma that Jarrell constantly endured by the age of 12.

Further traumatizing has been Jarrell’s experiences after being arrested. He had the post-traumatic stress of reliving what he had witnessed and allegedly committed, he had to flee 400 miles in order to evade capture and he was then shackled during his court appearance where he was told he was called a “danger to himself and others” and that he would be tried as an adult for murder and denied bail. Although it is new research that has yet to make it into legislative laws regarding the Juvenile Justice System, there is still solid evidence that shows the effectiveness of intervention and rehabilitation instead of incarceration of adolescents. An incarcerated youth is 8x more likely to commit suicide, 5x more likely to be sexually assault and has an increased rate of recidivism compared to a rehabilitated juvenile offender who is taught skills to help increase self-regulatory processes.

Just because people fear these children who commit violent crimes is no reason to forgo all of the new information available to us to better help rehabilitate those who commit these crimes. Children are children. Theres science now to back up the fact that children are physiologically different than adults. One of those differences is in the mental capabilities to make decisions and understand the ultimate consequences of their actions. Brains are not fully matured even into the teenage years and because of that they shouldn’t be held to full accountability for their behavior.

One of the major arguments against my thesis is that children from different environments, gender and genetic backgrounds reach neurobiological milestones at different times. Therefore, whats to say that one 13 year old has the mental capabilities to be held to an adequate level of culpability as an 18 year old. During the 1990’s there was a flux of violent crimes being committed by children, creating a media firestorm that created a “mini-predator” profile of these adolescents that commit adult crimes. The backlash was to treat these children as adults and having the legal system hold them accountable to adult standards. These legal practices haven’t changed much in the last quarter century, regardless of the new scientific research released about brain development and behaviorism.

Despite of scientific research, these advancements seem to have hindered advancement in the legal field regarding juvenile offenders. They take the argument that each child develops at different times, therefore there may be some cases in which a juvenile can be held accountable for their behavior above all other reasons. While it is undeniably true that development is a spectrum, there are certain universal truths: the prefrontal cortex is not matured until well into your twenties. That should be the end of the conversation about maturity but it isn’t.

The fact remains that a juvenile is simply not equipped developmentally to be culpable for their crimes. They don’t have the mental faculties to be able to make informed, rational decisions because they have no independent self-regulation. A person’s self-regulation is supposed to be learned through positive, nurturing, learned experiences throughout childhood. Jarrell Milton never had the affirmative influence of a stable family unit which clearly has already greatly affected him. Jarrell’s grandmother commented on his arrest by saying that he “never had a chance” because of his environment. To possibly incarcerate a 12-year-old for the rest of his life instead of providing him with the rehabilitation to teach him the social-emotional skills he missed growing up in the home he was exposed to would be a crime.

Works Cited

Spinks, Sarah. “Adolescent Brains Are A Work In Progress.” Nature, Mar. 2000.

Bandura, Albert. “Social cognitive theory of self-regulation.” Organizational behavior and human decision processes 50.2 (1991): 248-287.

K. M. Banham Bridges, Factors Contributing to Juvenile Delinquency, 17 Am. Inst. Crim. L. & Criminology 531 (1926-1927)

Scialabba, Nicole. “Should Juveniles Be Charged as Adults in the Criminal Justice System?” American Bar Association, 3 Oct. 2016.

Anda, , Filitti, Bremener, Walker, and Whitfield. “The enduring effects of abuse and related adverse experiences in childhood.” European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, vol. 256, no. 3, Apr. 2006, pp. 174-86. Accessed 14 Feb. 2017.

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