Definition Argument-torthey

What it means to be an “adult” can have two definitions; one regarding someone’s chronological age and another in respect to maturity. Within the Supreme Court, a person is generally considered to be an adult when they reach the age of 18 years old. However, when a person under that age has committed murder, all definitions of adulthood go out the window and biological children can face life without parole. In spite of scientific and sociological research regarding juvenile capability, certain states will still try children as adults regardless of their age.

According to modern neuroscience, the prefrontal cortex is the area of the brain responsible for planning, impulse control, among other things. This area of the brain continues to develop until the early twenties. It is biologically proven that even between the ages of 18-24, people on the latter end of the age scale are developmentally able to make better, more in-depth decisions and have better reasoning capabilities. Children’s brains are not even in the end stages of maturation until at least 18 years old, therefore how can the judicial system throwout scientific facts that help make the distinction between adolescents and true adults? The truth is that they can’t, nor should it. Saying that someone has the mental capacity to be considered an adult even at 18 is a stretch. The science of the matter is that your brain is not fully functioning until you’re in your mid-20’s so the notion of adulthood set at any age before that is arbitrary.

Setting the legal bar so high for adolescent offenders is morally bankrupt. A 13 year old may be tried in the courts as an adult for a crime yet have none of the rights as a legal adult. Children aren’t considered mature enough to drink, smoke, gamble, engage in consenting sexual activity or go to war but they can legally spend the rest of their lives in prison because of their alleged culpability for a crime. Its confounding that all responsibility of a crime should be placed upon the shoulders of a child without granting them all the rights as a legal adult.

In 2005 the Supreme Court decided that executing children younger than 18 years old was unconstitutional due to their neurobiological immaturity. Executing someone for a crime based upon their biological age is considered unconstitutional and yet an 11 year old can be tried as an adult for a crime and spend the rest of their life in prison without the possibility of parole and that doesn’t infringe on the notion of constitutionality.

Cognitive behaviorists have proven years ago that adolescents seek out risk and have difficulty regulating their emotions. The issue arises then about the cognitive  development of individuals. Gender, environmental influences and genetics all play a part in brain development. For instance, adolescents develop the capability for logical reasoning before self-regulatory abilities; they’re able to see that a behavior is wrong before they’re able to resist the urge to engage in the activity. Developing these skills at different times allows for expectations to be placed upon certain ages. We trust 16-year-olds to drive but not vote, so the notion of at what age we become responsible is blurred. This makes for a society that is unique to the United States. Other countries don’t have the same staggered maturation process that the U.S. does. This leaves the courts open to dole out punishments for crimes committed by children as if they were adults with their full mental faculties in place, blurring the lines about what being an adult really means.

Works Cited

Spinks, Sarah. “Adolescent Brains Are A Work In Progress.” Nature, Mar. 2000.

Bandura, Albert. “Social cognitive theory of self-regulation.” Organizational behavior and human decision processes 50.2 (1991): 248-287.

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Rebuttal – wentzwagon11

Baseball players should be evaluated and signed based off of either the eye test or the Saber metric approach and there is no in between. Both methods have been proven to work on their own in separate situations. While the eye test will result in a lot of star power in a line-up, a Saber metric approach will lead to a better balance on a team up and down a line-up. Both have been applied and both have won championships. The only thing that has yet to be proven is that a blend of the two would work. the two methods are almost polar opposites in the game of baseball. The eye-test finds the best players in the league, and the Saber metrics finds what players will give you the best value. So how would a blend of the two even work?

The eye-test has been applied to teams with a lot of money like the 1927 yankees. This team had a line-up where the first 5 batters were referred to as, “murderers row”. Murderer’s Row had players of the caliber of Babe Ruth and Lou Gehrig on the same team. The Yankees in 1927 found the best players in the country using the eye-test and signed them using their endless resources. This team had the best win percentage of all time and won a world series. The eye-test in this case has been proven to work and leads to success.

The 2004 Red Sox were a team who adapted to the new Saber metric approach of scouting. The Red Sox signed many players just before that season, but many of the were player no one had heard of. These players were evaluated from a strictly statistical approach. The players who were thought to be able to contribute the most the the team for the best price were the ones who were signed. The balance in the line-up where all players up and down had a positive WAR is what lead to their eventual success. In this case the Saber metric approach was proven to work and proven to lead to success.

The two teams that had success using one of the approaches would no doubt stick to their approach to continue winning. But what if there was a way to sign super stars at a good price for their value, while also picking up lower tier players who will still contribute to the team? This is where it would make sense to combine both methods of evaluation. Using the eye test scouts will be able to pick up on which players are the best around the league. Then using Saber metrics they could them pluck the players with the most value out of the pack that have the most value. This would create a balanced line-up that would also potentially have some serious star power. The only thing holding back this approach is the stubbornness of the two sides. No team wants to abandon the approach that has lead them to success and try something new.

Eventually all teams will be using a blend of the two most popular methods to build their rosters. As soon as one team decides to give it a try and builds a super team, all other teams will follow suit. It is a copy-cats league in the MLB. If one team has success doing something all others will try to replicate it in some way. While both the eye-test and Saber metric approach have their benefits they both have their weaknesses. For the eye-test you sacrifice balance for star power. For Saber metrics you sacrifice star power for a better balance. Teams could have the best of both worlds if they decided to try a hybrid of the two methods.

A hybrid would mean getting rid of all weaknesses and focusing on the strengths of both methods. Building a roster full of talented contributors would be the ideal situation for any team. Gone will be the stories of the 1927 Yankees and the 2004 Red Sox, and in will usher a new super team better than any others before it. It will not only lead to success, but it will lead to continuous success. Just rinse and repeat the process of seeking out the best players and deciphering their true value from a statistical stand point. The players being signed would be the creme of the crop and on a team where every player contributes is a team that will be very hard to beat. Therefore the Hybrid approach is a step that must be taken to advance baseball into a better more competitive era.

Works Cited

Paine, Neil. “Where Sabermetrics And the ‘Eye Test’ Disagree.” FiveThirtyEight. FiveThirtyEight, 14 Mar. 2016. Web. 06 Feb. 2017.

Reubenfb. “The Best MLB Teams Of All-Time, According To Elo.” FiveThirtyEight. FiveThirtyEight, 10 May 2016. Web. 20 Apr. 2017.

“1927 Yankees Reported Salaries.” 1927 Yankees – Reported Salaries. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Apr. 2017.

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  1. Negative Effects of Technology on Social Skills.” com. Web. 12 Apr. 2017.

Background: This article begins by explaining the use of technology in the classroom and how the advancement of it are affection students’ social abilities. It then goes on to describe the importance of social skills and how we use them to acknowledge normal cues that we would not recognize if we were not communicating face to face with a person.

How I used it: I used information on the importance of social cues from this site in my Definition and Research Arguments to help back up my position of the fact that one cannot recognize a visual cue through a virtual conversation which can wind up inflicting pain on someone.


  1. Wolpert, Stuart. “In Our Digital World, Are Young People Losing the Ability to Read Emotions?” UCLA Newsroom. 21 Aug. 2014. Web. 12 Apr. 2017.

Background: This article explains a study that was conducted by UCLA scientists to examine two groups of sixth-grade students where one group was attending a camp that did not allow electronic devices and the other group was not attending it. Every student was asked to recognize people’s emotions through pictures and videos before and after the study was conducted and the group that attended the camp improved much more than the group that did not.

How I used it: I used the experiment from this article to explain to my readers that people are more likely to communicate face to face when no electronic devices are available at hand.


  1. Viewpoint: Why Social Media Is Destroying Our Social Skills.” USA Today. Gannett Satellite Information Network, 18 July 2014. Web. 12 Apr. 2017.

Background: This article is about how social media is becoming the primary use of communication. It explains how people are becoming influenced to do certain things from what they see on the internet and describes how many people do not even feel the need to leave the house when they have so many networking and communication sites available from their homes.

How I used it: I used this article to help describe that it is likely to speak to family and friends virtually rather than face to face. I explained how it is not unusual to see people out in a group with their faces buried in their phones and I backed up my points with information that I gathered from this article. I also used it to describe how people are constantly taking pictures and posting on social media for their virtual friends to see rather than enjoying the time they are spending with others for themselves.


  1. Argyle, Michael. “Social Psychology.” Britannica Academic. Web. 29 Apr. 2017.

Background: This article begins by explaining what social psychology is. It then goes on to describe different experiments that are conducted to see how people live on a daily basis. Following this it talks about social perception and interaction processes. Afterwards, the article describes small social groups and how every group of people does not operate the same. Lastly it describes the process of socialization and how oneself is influenced and reacts to certain situations.

How I used it: I used this article in my Research Argument to explain that social media and technology are not the only aspects of life factoring into the lack of social interaction today. I used the information that I read up on about socialization to describe that one of the biggest problems in people’s personalities and lack of interaction are how they are raised. If a parent does not influence good behavior on their child, some of the blame can be held against their parent or guardian.


  1. Leader, Jessica. “This Is How Technology Is Affecting Your Relationship.” The Huffington Post., 17 Oct. 2014. Web. 19 Apr. 2017.

Background: This article explains how technology is affecting our relationships by describing how so many people spend so many hours of their days on the internet leading to the start of relationships. It explains how people get their hopes up when they meet someone online and then when it comes to meeting in person, expectations are not exceeded.

How I used it: In my papers I describe how, although there are successful relationships from people connecting online there are also times where families have been broken up due to other on-line relationships occurring. I used this article to explain how technology is causing a lack of trust in relationships and also to expand upon the fact that people are not always what they advertise themselves as on-line.


  1. The Impact of Social Media Use on Social Skills.” New York Behavioral Health. Web. 19 Apr. 2017

Background: This article explains how people are using social media more than any other type of communication. It provides us with different statistics showing the percentages of people that use social media, texting, and messaging over any other type of communication. It also explains the risks that social media comes with, for example, cyber bullying. Lastly it explains social media and social skills; how social cues are important to understand but we are not picking up on them on-line.

How I used it: I used this article to help describe that people who rely on technology as their primary use of communication are likely to lack normal social cues. I explain how teenagers use text messaging more than face-to-face interaction to communicate with others to prove that they are not receiving the elements needed to grow socially.


  1. Drago, Emily. “The Effect of Technology on Face-to-Face Communication.” The Effect of Technology on Face-to-Face Communication by Emily Drago 29 Apr. 2017.

Background: This article explains the negative influences that technology is having on society’s ability to communicate. It includes many different studies that were done proving the negative effects of face to face communication.

How I used it: I used information from this article to help verify the explanation that people who spend more time throughout the day on their cell phones or devices tend to lack social cues more so than people who do not spend so much time using technology.


  1. Bindley, Katherine. “When Children Text All Day, What Happens To Their Social Skills?The HuffingtonPost., 09 Dec. 2011. Web. 18 Apr. 2017.

Background: This article explains how with the continuous advancements of technology, the development of social skills in future generations might become worse and worse. Similar to other articles that I read up on, it describes how social cues such as foot tapping and eye contact, are not able to be understood through virtual communication.

How I used it: In my arguments I explain how technology is one of the biggest detractors in allowing people to grow socially through real life experiments. I use Bindley’s article to help prove my point in explaining that since the rise of smartphones, people are not socializing face-to-face as frequently as we used to before smartphones existed.


  1. Counter Argument and Conclusion Paragraphs.” SOCIAL MEDIA’S IMPACT ON AMERICA. Web. 19 Apr. 2017.

Background: This article explains how almost everybody in society today has at least one form of social media. It describes the negative aspects of social media such as; the cause of people becoming more isolated, less face-to-face interaction and weak relationships. It also describes some positives but overall explains that the negatives outweigh the positives

How I used it: I incorporated information from this article into my Research Argument by explaining how being constantly connected with the community makes some people feel less lonely. I used this information to make the counterargument against the harmful aspects of social media.



  1. Lenhart, Amanda. “Chapter 4: Social Media and Friendships.” Pew Research Center: Internet, Science & Tech. 06 Aug. 2015. Web. 19 Apr. 2017.

Background: This article explains how social media sites are playing a role in forming friendships and new relationships. It is one of the primary ways that teenagers interact with their peers. A lot of people in society feel that social media is giving them a better connection to their surroundings and allows them to say things through a text message or online that they may feel uncomfortable saying in person.

How I used it: I used this article in my Research Argument to help explain that even though there are many negatives to social media, it is still one of the main ways that teenagers use to communicate. Children are still able to make friends through social media without certain social skills and people find this as a positive impact on society for children that are more shy and tend to have difficulty making friends.


  1. Nicholson, Jeremy. “Pros and Cons of Online Dating.” Psychology Today. Sussex Publishers, 30 Apr. 2014. Web. 19 Apr. 2017.

Background: This article includes information about how there are both positive and negative aspects to online dating. For example, it explains how matching may be a pro for some people that do not have much time to go out so they are able to take personality tests to match with someone of similar interests. However, on the down side of this, a person can be matched with someone who is nothing like what they present themselves as online in person.

How I used it: I used this article to help explain that meeting someone online as opposed to in person can lead to issues that may be uncomfortable due to the fact that just because a person matches with someone online does not mean they are the actual perfect match for each other, which is what many people set their expectations to causing disappointment.


  1. Is Technology Making People Less Sociable?The Wall Street Journal. Dow Jones & Company, 10 May 2015. Web. 27 Apr. 2017.

Background: This article is about how people are spending so much time developing online relationships that it is taking away from forming real life relationships. It also explains how networking and communication sites have made it easier for long distance friends and relatives to stay in contact with each other. The article then goes deeper into the fact that having hundreds of friends we on Facebook and other sites is unnecessary because we are reading into people’s lives who we have not even met.

 How I used it: I used information from this article to explain that it has become the norm to see people occupied by their phones due to the fact that people are using mobile technology to maintain contact with others.


  1. What Impact Has Social Media Truly Had On Society.” Business 2 Community. Web. 30 Apr. 2017.

 Background: This article, similar to others, explains the negative and positive impacts that social media has had on society. It goes into the impact on politics, business, productivity and our privacy. It also talks about cyber bullying and the effects of social media.

How I used it: I used this article in my research argument to help explain the role that social media has had on politics. When people start to post on twitter about their opinions on politics people tend to get offended which can cause problems.


  1. Duggan, Maeve, and Aaron Smith. “The Political Environment on Social Media.” Pew Research Center: Internet, Science & Tech. 25 Oct. 2016. Web. 30 Apr. 2017.

Background: This articles main focus is on the harsh statements that are posted on social media on politics and how they are offending others.

How I used it: I used this article to help describe the frustration that people get when they see things online occurring that they get offended by because they have different views. I go on to explain that posting our political opinions online is unnecessary and is causing useless drama.


  1. Morris, Chris, and Special To “The Rise of Tech, the Death of Human Interaction.” CNBC. CNBC, 15 Aug. 2015. Web. 27 Apr. 2017.

Background: This article explains how addictions to our smart phones can be similar to that of alcoholics. It also describes the lack of human connection that we are receiving through dating sites and how people are treating relationships more untraditionally than they used to be.

How I used it: I used this article in my Research Argument to explain how the overuse of technology is unhealthy for our brains. The article describes a study that was conducted where scientists found abnormal connections between the nerve fibers in the brains of people who constantly use the internet. I further explained that from technology we are not only lacking social interaction but it is not healthy for us to constantly be using.

Posted in A11: Annotated Bibliography, starbucks, starbucks Portfolio | 1 Comment

Bibliography- Kingoflizards

1. Hoshaw, Lindsay. “Afloat in the Ocean, Expanding Islands of Trash.” New York Times. 10 Nov. 2009. Web. 06 Feb. 2017

Background: A gyre is a term for a swirl or vortex caused by ocean currents. In one of these gyres off the coast of Hawaii, there is something called the Great Pacific Garbage Patch. This garbage patch is a mass of collected garbage. Be it cans, bottles, styrofoam, or tiny bits of plastic, it is all collected together in a mass that is roughly the size of Texas. The patch is harmful to surrounding wildlife, and must be dealt with.

How I used it: This article gave me important information on the Great Pacific Garbage Patch. I used it to study the size and physical makeup of the patch.

2.Kaiser, Jocelyn, Jocelyn Kaiser, and Science18 Jun 2010 : 1506. “The Dirt on Ocean Garbage Patches.The Dirt on Ocean Garbage Patches | Science. N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Feb. 2017.

Background: The great pacific garbage patch has been called a “trash vortex.” It is not the mucky collection of bulky garbage that many believe it is. Mostly it’s pellets of plastic. This is caused by the plastic breaking down in the ocean. The result is many animals dying from eating these pellets, thinking they are plankton or some other food.

How I used it: This source provided information on the most difficult issue in the Trash Patch problem, the Microplastics. I used this source to tell the facts about microplastics, and they are a main concern in the paper.

3. Marks, Kathy, and Daniel Howden. “The world’s rubbish dump: a garbage tip that stretches from Hawaii to Japan.” Http:// N.p., 5 Feb. 2008. Web. 19 Feb. 2016.

Background: The Great Pacific Garbage Patch is mysterious. The garbage floats just below the surface, making it impossible to see on satellite imagery. While the patch stretches from between Hawaii and California, almost to Japan. There are stories of boats passing through the patch for over a week. The patch is a tough problem because we are unsure of exactly where it starts and when it ends, due to its near invisibility.

How I used it: I used this article because it told the story of the discovery of the Great Pacific Garbage Patch. The patch was only discovered in 1997, and that is a talking point in the paper.

4. “Baltimore Waterfront.” Waterfront Partnership. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 May 2017.

Background: The trash wheel is a paddle powered raft that floats around the Inner Harbor of Baltimore city. It is designed to clean up waterways. Last October, Mr. Trash Wheel picked up is one-millionth pound of trash. Since this, they released another Trash Wheel into the waters. These trash wheels have cleaned up the harbors in tremendous ways.

How I used it: This website has the specific numbers on the garbage that was picked up by Mr. Trash Wheel. I used these numbers to illustrate how such a simple idea can be so effective at stopping the litter in a particular area.

5. Layton, Julia. “Could We Clean Up the Great Pacific Garbage Patch?Hoestuffworks Science. Howstuffworks, 04 Feb. 2010. Web.

Background: This essay-like article highlights past attempts to clean up the Great pacific garbage patch. It tells the things that were attempted, and it tells why they did not work.

How I used it: Illustrating why these other ideas did not work helped show the problems that need to be solved. By seeing what has gone wrong in the past, it was easier to see what needs to be done in the future.

6. “Ocean Trash: 5.25 Trillion Pieces and Counting, but Big Questions Remain.” National Geographic. National Geographic Society, 24 Mar. 2017. Web. 27 Mar. 2017

Background: This is a National Geographic article, so it is not as in-depth as a more science-oriented publication. This article uses the big scary numbers as a way to shock readers.

How I used it: The numbers in the article are in fact true, so if the goal is to shock readers, this article can be helpful. I used the article for the specific numbers on certain statistics.

7. Simmon, Robert. “What are Phytoplankton.” NASA. Earth Observatory. 13 July, 2010

Background: This is an informative article on the crucial role that phytoplankton play in the marine ecosystem. The phytoplankton are the base of any oceanic food web, and are pivotal to the survival of many species.

How I used it: The great pacific garbage patch can pose a threat to phytoplankton. I used the article to show why phytoplankton are important, yet another reason why the patch should be cleaned up.

8. Parker, Laura. “Eight Million Tons of Plastic Dumped in Ocean Every Year.” National Geographic. National Geographic Society, 14 Apr. 2015. Web 19 April, 2017

Background: This is another National Geographic article. This one focusses on statistics again, and specifically highlights which specific countries produce the most garbage, and where that garbage ends up.

How I used it: I used this article to show that no one country should be held responsible for the great pacific garbage patch. If multiple countries are responsible for the trash, they all should be responsible for cleaning it up.

9. Campbell, Colin. “Rank record: Mr. Trash Wheel gathers 1 millionth pound of trash from Jones Falls.” N.p., 20 Oct. 2016. Web. 19 Feb. 2017.

Background: This is a basic article on what Mr. Trash Wheel actually is. Its purpose is to inform readers on what the purpose of Mr. Trash Wheel is, and what exactly it is.

How I used it: The article gave me more insight on how Mr. Trash Wheel works. I knew it had something to due with solar power, and utilized the currents of the river, but i did not know specifically how.

10. MailOnline, Jenny Awford for. “No man is an island: British DIY Robinson Crusoe builds his own floating paradise off the coast of Mexico out of 150,000 recycled bottles – and now he’s found his Girl Friday!” Daily Mail Online. Associated Newspapers, 07 Nov. 2014. Web. 06 Feb. 2017.

Background: This article is about a man who constructed his own island. By using plastic bottles and layers of topsoil, he was able to create a floating island.

How I used it: I used this article to form the idea of my paper. The original direction of the paper used this idea as a solution for the garbage patch. After reading this article, it became clear that this idea was not the solution to the problem. This caused me to rethink my paper and take it in a new direction.

11. Goldstein, Jacob. “The Invention of ‘The Economy.’” NPR. 28 Feb. 2014. Web. 22 Jan. 2017.

Background: This article is all about how the economy was just something that was thought of recently. People did not understand the concept of national spending, and the effect that it would have on so many things.

How I used it: I used this article to show how the economy is not “real.” The economy is just a term used when describing the national trade statistics.

12. Friedman, Milton. “The Island of Stone Money.” The Island of Stone Money(1991): 3-7. Web. 22 Jan. 2017

Background: This article is about a group of people that live on the island of Yap. These people have a unique currency. The coins that are used on Yap are the size of a car, and they weigh thousands of pounds.

How I used it: This article was used to illustrate the abstract nature of currency in general. I drew parallels between the modern United States economy, to the stone money of Yap.

13. Glass, Ira, Chana Joffe-Walt, Alex Blumberg, and Dave Kestenbaum. “423: The Invention of Money.” This American Life. Prod. Planet Money. 7 Jan. 2011. This American Life. Web. 22. Jan. 2017

Background: This is some sort of podcast. It is about the question of “what is money?” They refer to the island of Yap, and its unique perspective on money. They conclude that money is a concept. It is just value that we assign on non-valuable things.

How I used it: I used this article to show how nebulous our idea of money is. Paper money actually has no value, but is coveted because of what humans believe about it.

14. Joffe-Walt, Chana. “How Fake Money Saved Brazil.” NPR. NPR, 4 Oct. 2010. Web. 22. Jan. 2017

Background: This is another podcast, and it is about the Brazilian economy. In the 1980’s, the Brazilian economy was in the toilet. Basically the solution was to slow the production of money, while slowly reinforcing the peoples’ thoughts about their currency. People needed to believe in the currency in order for it to work.

How I used it: This article was useful in helping me understand how fictional currency really is. In order for it to work, people need to respect it. With none of these beliefs in place, the money would be completely useless.

15. Katz, Mitchell H. MD. “Housing As A Remedy for Chronic Homelessness.” Jamanetwork. N.P, 3 Mar 2015. Web. 29 Jan. 2017

Background: The cure for chronic homelessness is to house the people first, then get them a job. According to this article, people are usually chronically homeless because of some sort of injury. These people are not lazy, but they need help. This strategy has shown great results for hundreds of people, and has improved their lives dramatically.

How I used it: I used this article in the assignment “a blow to the head.” The homeless people clearly need help, and are not lazy. Many people see a homeless person and immediately assume that they are lazy and choosing not to work. In fact, many of these people are unable to work due to chronic homelessness. This article showed me that this way of solving the issue can work.

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Core Value I. My work demonstrates that I used a variety of social and interactive practices that involve recursive stages of exploration, discovery, conceptualization, and development.

Throughout the entire course of the semester, I have utilized Core Value I with all of my assignments for Comp II. For every assignment that I completed, I learned that it was not possible to write a perfect draft from the start. It takes time, hard work, and concentration to make improvements for every assignment to be the best that it can be. In the beginning of the semester I did not realize how important it was to ask for feedback until I received a few grades that I was not happy with. I then came to the conclusion that I needed to take time to ask my Professor for feedback and take everything into consideration that he had to offer. For example, I had to completely rewrite my Definition Argument and still make changes to it after rewriting it. For my first draft, my topic was: “Is Technology Making Society Weak,” this was way too broad of a topic and my Professor told me that I had to narrow it down and focus more on one specific aspect of technology in order to receive a better my grade. So instead I rewrote my essay on, “Is Technology Impeding Social Skill Development.” From here I had to fix a few errors that were made after asking for feedback once again. This essay shows that I was able to ask for feedback, revise, and edit to receive the best grade possible, which is what Core Value I demonstrates.

Core Value II. My work demonstrates that I placed texts into conversation with one another to create meaning by synthesizing ideas from various discourse communities.

For all three of my short arguments and my final research paper, it was very important for me to demonstrate the second core value throughout. Finding reliable articles to use in papers can be difficult, so it was vital for me to read up on several different databases and articles to utilize the one’s that I felt would be best for my work. I feel that this core value was most useful in my Research Argument. For this assignment I did use a few sources from my previous short arguments but it was also important for me to find new ones. When reading up on different statistics and opinions, it was important for me to find convincing and strong research on how technology and social media is causing a lack of social interaction. Taking work from outside sources can be difficult because it sometimes leads to academic integrity. This is why it is so crucial to pay close attention to how we utilize information in our own writing, which is why Core Value II is not only extremely important in this class but in all work that we complete throughout the course of our lives.

Core Value III. My work demonstrates that I rhetorically analyzed the purpose, audience, and contexts of my own writing and other texts and visual arguments.

I feel that in this course I have learned the importance of the purpose of every piece of writing. Even if I felt that some assignments were unnecessary at times, I have realized in the end that everything I have completed throughout this class has benefitted me as a student and has made me a better writer. I have also learned that it is important to keep my writing detailed and as best as it can be so that my audience stays interested and understands what I am explaining. I feel that I demonstrated this core value best in my Visual Rhetoric. For this assignment I analyzed every second individually of the thirty second ad: “Never Give Up Until They Buckle Up.” For my first draft my Professor gave me feedback saying that I needed to expand on each second more so that my readers could get an even better understanding of what the video was about without watching it. So from this, I re-watched each second of the video and took note of every little aspect of each clip. I wound up realizing that things that I felt were unnecessary to include in my first draft were very important parts of the video that my readers should understand. This ad was about the importance of wearing a seatbelt, and from the notes that I took on each second, I believe that my readers will understand how it led to this conclusion. I believe that by demonstrating each second as best as I could that my readers will have a good vision of what the video might look like while reading my assignment which is what Core Value III demonstrates.

Core Value IV: My work demonstrates that I have met the expectations of academic writing by locating, evaluating, and incorporating illustrations and evidence to support my own ideas and interpretations.

With every paper that we are assigned to write throughout the course of our lives, it is important to research the opinions of others and statistics to prove points that we are trying to make. Without specific evidence other than ourselves, it is hard for a reader to be convinced of a topic or take a side in an argument. I was able to incorporate the research of others to support my own ideas in my Causal Argument. After reading the first draft that I wrote of this assignment, I realized that I did not have enough evidence to make my points valid. So I did some research and added more insight. For example, I was attempting to prove the point that technological advancements are altering society’s social skills and cues but did not have enough information to prove this. I found an article written by Emily Drago entitled, “The Effect of Technology on Face-to-Face Communication,” and used the evaluations I made to show studies that were conducted regarding technology’s effect on social interaction. This situation, along with the fourth core value demonstrates that I was able to incorporate new illustrations to my writing in order to receive a better grade.

Core Value V. My work demonstrates that I respect my ethical responsibility to represent complex ideas fairly and to the sources of my information with appropriate citation.

Core Value V is important to utilize in all papers we write that include work that is not our own. When researching, we must cite the information that we are using directly from others. If we do not do so this can lead to plagiarism and academic integrity violations. In my Rebuttal Argument I not only cited sources to give credit to the Authors’ work that I found useful, but I also used certain articles to refute and make counterarguments against. For example, I used the article “Social Media’s Impact on America” to show that many people in society feel more connected due to social media. I made the point throughout my essay against this by explaining that even though people feel more connected, they are still using technology as their primary use of communication which is causing a lack of social skills. While making the argument against this point, I did so in a respectful manner which is what the fifth core value consists of. It is important to respect other people’s writings even if we do not agree. It is also important to respect them by citing when we use their sources.

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Visual Rhetoric (UPDATED)-starbucks

0:00: There is a four door car parked in a drive way in front of house with a basketball hoop. It is a late-model and is facing the viewer. We are not able to determine the model of the car because the emblem on the grill is indistinct. Since we do not know the model we can come to the conclusion that this video will not be an ad for a new car. All of the doors of the car are opened. It is a nice day out and the car is in park. It is most likely either mid-morning or mid-afternoon from the way the sun casts its shadow on the well maintained house. The family is most likely either just getting back from somewhere or leaving to go somewhere.

0:01: All doors of the car shut. There are two young boys in the middle row of the car and a girl who looks a little bit older than the boys in the back row of the car. The girl has headphones on probably trying to ignore whatever the two boys are saying to each other. Since the car was parked in front of the house we may conclude that all three of these children might be siblings. It looks like the boy on the right is trying to grab something that is not pictured on the screen from the boy on the left.

0:02: in the next second of the video, the boy on the left looks like he is trying to take something from the other boy. The boy on the left is now reaching further over the middle seat with his arms most likely attempting to grab something. The boy on the right has a certain facial expression that looks as if he’s struggling to hold onto something. The boy that is trying to take something is looking at the other child. The girl in the backseat is looking away, ignoring the fact that these two boys, possibly her brothers, are arguing. She still has her pink headphones on and looks like she is chewing on something because her mouth is slightly opened.

0:03-0:04: The camera zooms into the girl in the backseat. She has her eyes almost closed and is chewing on something, most likely a piece of gum. She has headphones on, not paying attention to anything other than her music. She may be annoyed by the sound that her possibly two younger brothers are making which is why she has headphones on to try and ignore the argument going on as best as possible. Moving onto the next second, the girls eyes slightly open along with her mouth that is chewing on something. Then the camera zooms to a man in the driver’s seat. He looks a little frustrated. His mouth is shut, hands are on the wheel, seatbelt on, and his eyes are wide opened probably looking at the road. He is most likely these three children’s father, so the fact that these two boys are arguing over something is probably bothering him.

0:05-0:06: Before the camera moves back onto the girl in the backseat you can see hands moving. The camera is still pictured on the man in the front seat and the hands that are flapping at each other in the backseat of him are hard to visualize because it is not the main focus of this specific shot. From that I would conclude that it was the two boy’s hands still fighting over something. The camera then zooms back onto the girl in the back seat but from a side view rather than straight on, like before. She is blowing a bubble with the piece of gum in her mouth and her headphones still on. Her eyes are closed so since they have been closed for almost the majority of this video at this point we may conclude that she is still trying to avoid the other chaos going on in the car and maybe even trying to take a nap. The focus is on the girl blowing the bubbly however, we are able to see a blurry vision of the background through the car window. It looks like they are still home, maybe just pulling out of the drive way because we are able to slightly see the garage or just a part of the house.

0:07- 0:09 The camera then shows the boy who before looked like he was getting annoyed with his brother, the boy on the right. His mouth is opened, probably shouting at his brother for taking something from him. His eyes are looking down at something, probably looking at whatever object he is trying to hold on to. In the next split second, he looks up and over to the left probably at his brother who was not pictured at the moment. His mouth was still opened, showing that he was still saying something. The camera then moves to a lady sitting in the passenger seat, most likely the children’s mother. It looks like she is looking into the rear view mirror to see what the two boys are fighting about. We have a blurry vision in the background of the boy of the left still reaching out with one hand to grab something from the other boy. Farther in the back of the girl is still a blurry picture of the young girl with her headphones on with her head turned to the left, probably looking out the window avoiding all of the nonsense occurring. The woman in the front seat then opens her mouth slightly like she is about to say something but then the camera switches to the father’s eyes in the rear view mirror most likely looking back at the boys’ actions as well.

0:10: The camera switches back to the girl in the back seat and she just popped her bubble and is looking out the car window. Her eyes are now opened, so when they were closed for the few seconds before this part of the video she may have been rolling her eyes. In the back is still pictured a part of the house, it is white and the same part of before, most likely the garage since that’s what the car was parked in front of. This shows that they did not leave the house yet. The girls bubbly gum deflates at the end of the ten seconds.

0:11-0:13: The camera then moves back to the two boys and they both have their hands on a bag of cheese doodles. It looks they are both pulling the bag so that they can have it for themselves and not share with each other, however, this is causing the cheese doodles to start spilling out of the bag. The boy on the left has his eyes closed, probably because the cheese doddles are flying out of the bag more towards him. While the boy on the right has his eyes slightly opened looking at the bag trying to take them back. We are now able to conclude that this was what the boy on the left was trying to take from the boy on the right the entire time. This shows that they were not willing to share with each other since they are both tugging at the bag making it look more as if it is an argument. The camera moves to the boy’s face on the right, he has his mouth slightly opened with the cheese doodle bag and some crumbs from it slightly pictured in the clip. The camera then moves back to the center so both of the boys are pictured in it. They are still tugging at the bag causing the cheese doodles to fly out everywhere. The cheese doodles are flying out to the middle of the screen making it the main focus of this part. The snack is most likely flying up to where the parents are sitting, distracting the father from paying attention to the road.

0:14-0:16: the camera zooms into the dads face and he is looking at something, most likely the rear view mirror looking back at the cheese doodles flying out. There are cheese doodles pictured towards the left of him as if they are about to get all over him. He moves his eyes slightly away from the rear view mirror to look forward. He looks extremely annoyed with his eyes wide open. While the dad’s face remains the same, the cheese doodles continue to come more towards him.

0:17: The camera switches back, focusing on the two boys. Both of their mouths are opened, probably because they are yelling at each other. To the left of them camera is blurry but it is the mother looking back at them, her mouth is closed but she is probably preparing to say something to them considering she is looking back. In the background the sister is looking at them, she looks shocked probably because she wouldn’t think that there would be such a big fight because of a bag of cheese doodles. Both of the boys then turn their heads and eyes towards their mother quickly as she opens her mouth to say something to them with her eyes very widely opened.

0:18-0:21: The camera moves, just focusing on the mother. She is still in the passenger’s seat but is turned to look at the boys. She mouths the word “now” while looking very annoyed at the fact that they just spilled their snack all over the car. The camera moves to the two boys, they are both looking in the same direction at their mother. They still have their hands on the bag but stopped tugging at it and they now probably feel bad for making a mess and making their parents angry. Pictured in the back at this point is the older girl with her headphone still on but she is also looking in the same direction as the boys probably wondering how her mother reacted to the situation. The camera then zooms into the boy on the right buckling his seat belt. This may show us that this ad might be about the safety of wearing a seatbelt in the car and not getting distracted by other silly things over being safe.

0:22: The camera zooms into the father’s face and it looks like he is looking at his wife. His mouth is closed because he is probably letting the mother do the parenting at this point since he has to focus of the road. All that we can see in the background is the car so we cannot tell if they have left the house or not yet.

0:23: The camera zooms away from the father and now you can see the father, mother, and one of the son’s. As the camera zooms away, the father smirks and is now looking forward, probably at the road. The only other person pictured besides the parents at the point is the boy of the left. The boy on the left is looking at his father smirking. The mother is turned towards the back seat; it looks like she is talking to the son who is not pictured. The father may be smirking because they are finally able to leave the house now that all of the fighting is over with.

0:24-0:25: The camera is still at the same angle. The mother turns forward while tossing a cheese doodle that was probably on her to the back seat. The father puts his hand on top of the wheel and sighs because he is probably frustrated. The only son that is pictured is now looking out of the window but we cannot see what exactly he is looking at.

0:26-0:30: The car is finally pulling out of the drive way. The words, “Never give up until they buckle up” come up on the screen. So watching this second by second we would have never known what the moral of this video about. But we learn that the importance of it is to not drive away until everyone is buckled up with their seat belts.

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Reflective Statement – nobinaryneeded

Core Value I. My work demonstrates that I used a variety of social and interactive practices that involve recursive stages of exploration, discovery, conceptualization, and development.

Throughout the class I have definitely learned how to demonstrate the use of variety and social practices. Writing is all about research on the topic, some can even be personal experiences. The writing can be interactive by connecting with the reader, asking them questions, showing them that the topic at hand is something that, whether they experience or not, can feel a connection with. I have demonstrated this in my causation essay when I go on to tell a story of a girl who struggles with mental illness. This conceptualizes the idea to the readers, giving them the story they need to hear to understand the severity of the topic of the paper. I’ve learned this quite well and do intent to use it in the future through my college career.

Core Value II. My work demonstrates that I placed texts into conversation with one another to create meaning by synthesizing ideas from various discourse communities. 

While writing essays it is important to make sure that we include sources from all points of view in order to get a stronger argument. In my rebuttal argument I use sources that argue against my claim that mental illness stigma is real and present, not to mention a serious problem. This lets me get my argument stronger by rebutting against that claim, all while showing my readers that I can provide a strong argument with facts, statistics, and personal experience. The readers will hopefully get the connection with the essay and will be able to learn something new from both perspectives of the situation addressed in the essay. I plan to continue on using this strategy through my college career, considering I believe it is one of my strongest ones.

Core Value III. My work demonstrates that I rhetorically analyzed the purpose, audience, and contexts of my own writing and other texts and visual arguments.

In my experience writing this essay it became clear to me that analyzing all aspects of the essay is crucial to a good piece. I’ve very well learned to analyze the purpose of the essay by doing my research on the topic thoroughly, such as I did in my definition argument. I analyzed the context too, rereading what I wrote and making sure that it makes sense to the reader and that my point will come across strong in the information I’ve provided. I continue to keep growing as a writer each day, in the essay form, and while I have three years left at Rowan University, I’ll use all of these tips, and continue to analyze the purposes, audiences, and contexts of my own writing.

Core Value IV: My work demonstrates that I have met the expectations of academic writing by locating, evaluating, and incorporating illustrations and evidence to support my own ideas and interpretations.

In my White Paper I locate, evaluate, and incorporate illustrations and evidence to start off my paper, to start off how this paper is going to go. I also show it a lot in my rebuttal argument because I go on to tell the story of a girl, who I have based off of myself from when I was sixteen years old (and still a girl). What’s more factual than a real life experience by the person who has written the paper themselves. It’s a perfect example of evidence that more than just myself has to deal with. Personal experience is the best evidence. And though I cannot always use them in my essays in college, I can do my research and find other’s experiences in the topic.

Core Value V. My work demonstrates that I respect my ethical responsibility to represent complex ideas fairly and to the sources of my information with appropriate citation. 

This essay has taught me that I can represent complex ideas in a fair manor based off of the information and sources that I have provided myself with. While this is an argument in which I have a side, I support my side with strong evidence, personal experiences, other’s personal experiences, and statistics and factual evidence. There are many factors that went into writing this research paper, though the most prominent and supportive one were all of the sources I had gathered to make my argument strong without bashing the other side of the argument, but arguing against it in an ethical, appropriate manor.  I can use this skill throughout the rest of my college experience and make my future essays more ethical and responsible.


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Reflective- Romanhsantiago

Core Value I, is the backbone of all writing. Writing is a process which involves peer review as well as self-reflection. This in term brings multiple stages for writing only one piece. Core value I is the main thing I have done in college. This semester I have had to formulate a counterintuitive idea. I then write about it from different angles later deciding which angle I want to focus on. After writing these papers i ask for feed back from my professor and revise my paper and submit them again. I later work toward formulating a final draft which would be my end product. It takes multiple stages and no paper is ever perfect but without the stages it would not be its best much like my research argument.

Core value II is a very important part of the writing process. Core Value II involves close reading and analysis to better understand text. This Core Value allows us to be adequately prepared for understanding and writing about our topic. I have demonstrated my use of Core value II  throughout the semester but most recently in causal argument. In my causal essay I had to read through many articles to really find what the cause of hate crimes was and the different degrees to the hate crimes are. After reading multiple articles and summarizing the main ideas, I ended up realizing i was writing about a much deeper topic in hate crimes. If I had not used core value II, the essay would have been very different and in my opinion earned me a lower grade.

Core Value III- Throughout this semester I learned that my writing has to fit the people that I intend to read it. This semester I found myself reading many scholarly articles that were written by scholars for scholars not for a freshman college student. Since these articles were not meant to be read by me I had to do lots of extra work to understand them and use them in my writing properly. Had they been written for me I would not have had to do that. During my research for my final paper I learned that part of the cause of hate crimes is influence by others by targeting the certain audience that will be influenced by it. I have demonstrated my understanding of this in my rebuttal essay when I don’t bash the opposing view because they are the audience i am trying to influence. I have also demonstrated this throughout my essays by quoting multiple sources and making my essay credible.

Core Value IV is mainly about understanding and utilizing the sources you find to be able to formulate the best writing possible. Through-out this semester I have utilized many types of sources from scholarly articles to newspapers and more. However, finding and choosing sources maybe difficult because not all sources are credible. Last semester I learned to find a good source I must use the CRAAP test which is a test that consist of five steps to help weed out the bad sources. The C stands for current as in the date of the source compared to the relevance of your topic. The R stands for relevance or how closely related the source is to your topic. The first A stands for authority or how credible the source, is it published research backed by facts or a blog that only gives a biased opinion. The second A stands for accuracy or how factual and relevant the information in the source is to your topic. And finally the P stands for purpose, so why the source is conveying the message that it is conveying. I later took the sources I found and cited them in different ways throughout my essay making my writing more credible and better. I did this for all of my sources.

Core Value V– I am a strong believer in that if something is easy it is not worth learning. Many of the issues and topics that I have written about this semester have no solution. For example, I wrote an essay about hate crimes. That is a very controversial topic and it has been a problem for hundreds of years. While writing my essay I did not offer a solution to end sexism because that would be impossible. However, I understand that by bringing awareness to the subject and educating people on what Hate crimes are and how it affects all people, it is a step in the right direction toward getting rid of them. The root of all hate is ignorance and the only way to cure ignorance is by educating people. We all have different viewpoints and there is no right or wrong because we don’t live in a perfect world. However, I simply try to educate and give an unbiased opinion to the best of my ability using facts and outside resources to back my belief. I do not bash the opposing one I simply offer it an alternative. For example, in my essay about hate crimes I wrote about how many people believe hate crimes do not exist. I did not bash that opposing view, I simply stated that Hate crimes are a very real and relevant thing in this world. To explain that to my audience I had many sources from which I closely read and analyzed to then form my own opinion on things and expand on the ideas of others, while still giving them full credit.

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Research Argument—torthey

On June 29, 20015, Jarrell Milton, Jamar Milton and Shauntayvious Primes-Willis (aged 12, 17, and 15, respectively) were involved in a gang-related shooting over a drug deal where Jamymell Ray, 31, was killed in Omaha, Nebraska. Jamar and Shauntayvious were apprehended immediately following the crime but Jarrell wasn’t arrested until 10 days later, all the way in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Prosecutors say that Ray and friend Charles Fisher, who was injured but later released from the hospital, had arranged to meet the kids in a park to sell them marijuana when they were hit by gunfire. Prosecutors said Wednesday that they plan to charge Jarrell and two teen accomplices with first-degree murder as adults; “All three suspects had guns. There were shell casings from two different types of guns at the scene,” Douglas County District Attorney Don Kleine said, adding that the victim was shot at close range.

Developmentally speaking, the fact that the District Attorney is even entertaining the notion of trying a pre-teen as an adult for a Murder I charge is horrifying. There is irrefutable scientific research that proves that a person that young cognitively cannot comprehend the impact of his actions. Jarrell Milton is pre-pubescent which means that his neurological cognitive functioning makes it physiologically impossible for him to consider the long term consequences of his actions. At puberty, a child’s Limbic System experiences an increase in dopamine levels while, conversely, the amygdala becomes extremely underactive. This opposing relationship cause a drastic increase in adolescent risk-taking and delinquent behaviors. This biologically programmed poor decision making is exacerbated by the presence of one’s peers. The prosecution’s theory that Jarrell Milton had been complicit in a premeditative plan to lure a man to the park so that they could attempt a robbery is idiotic. Children are physically, biologically and neurologically incapable of making the same informed critical thinking as an adult, therefore, it is essentially immoral and unethical to try a child as an adult.

Neurobiological immaturity aside, Jarrell Milton suffered from so many traumatic Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) that his brain most likely was under-developed compared to a neuro-typically developing peer without prior ACEs. Scientific research has proven that adolescent trauma negatively affects neurological development. As a toddler, Jarrell’s mother was incarcerated for felony assault and Jarrell, along with this 7 siblings, were sent to live in state run foster care. Jarrell’s father is also currently serving a life sentence in prison for a murder conviction as a result of a drug deal gone wrong, exactly the same crime and charges that his 12-year-old son is now facing. This child grew up surrounded by crime, gangs and violent peer influence that detrimentally affected his neurological and social development. Gangs, such as the Nike Street Gang that Jarrell, his brother and also his cousins are a part of, are notorious for exploiting their young members for carrying out crimes because they would receive less time in jail because of their ages. The lack of family stability that Jarrell has experienced for his entire short life made him a perfect target for the manipulative “family” of a gang.

The neglect, unstable housing, out of home placements, family disorganization and overall household dysfunction Jarrell has faced because of both of his parents’ individual incarcerations and the resulting clear lack of supervision because of his absentee parents is evident in Jarrell’s ability to obtain a firearm and maintain his gang affiliation without any reported parental intervention. Before this crime was even committed, Jarrell Milton had five serious environmental Adverse Childhood Experiences, which leads us to safely be able to assume that the shooting was not simply due to his gang’s peer pressure (which I consider an extremely dismissive term for something so maladaptive), but also a result of the severe physiological trauma that Jarrell constantly endured by the age of 12.

Further traumatizing has been Jarrell’s experiences after being arrested. He had the post-traumatic stress of reliving what he had witnessed and allegedly committed, he had to flee 400 miles in order to evade capture and he was then shackled during his court appearance where he was told he was called a “danger to himself and others” and that he would be tried as an adult for murder and denied bail. Although it is new research that has yet to make it into legislative laws regarding the Juvenile Justice System, there is still solid evidence that shows the effectiveness of intervention and rehabilitation instead of incarceration of adolescents. An incarcerated youth is 8x more likely to commit suicide, 5x more likely to be sexually assault and has an increased rate of recidivism compared to a rehabilitated juvenile offender who is taught skills to help increase self-regulatory processes.

The fact remains that a juvenile is simply not equipped developmentally to be culpable for their crimes. They don’t have the mental faculties to be able to make informed, rational decisions because they have no independent self-regulation. A person’s self-regulation is supposed to be learned through positive, nurturing, learned experiences throughout childhood. Jarrell Milton never had the affirmative influence of a stable family unit which clearly has already greatly affected him. Jarrell’s grandmother commented on his arrest by saying that he “never had a chance” because of his environment. To possibly incarcerate a 12-year-old for the rest of his life instead of providing him with the rehabilitation to teach him the social-emotional skills he missed growing up in the home he was exposed to would be a crime.

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