1. Benderly, Berly. “Psychology’s tall tales.” American Psychological Association. N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Mar. 2017.
Background: This is one of the articles about the myths surrounding Kitty Genovese. It explains some of the misinformation and rumors of the murder.
How I used it: This article helped clear up misconceptions about the murder.
Gansberg, Martin. “37 Who Saw Murder Didn’t Call the Police.” The New York Times. The New York Times, 26 Mar. 1964. Web. 06 Mar. 2017.
2. Cherry, Kendra. “What Is the Bystander Effect?” Verywell. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Apr. 2017.
Background: This article explains the bystander effect and why it might occur. It claims that the diffusion of responsibility causes the bystander effect. When people are in a group, each person feels less pressure to act. It also explains what was discovered in the smoke experiment. People in a group look at others for the proper response. If others don’t react, then people assume the proper response is not to do anything.
How I used it: I used it to learn about the bystander effect and why it might happen.
3. Cillizza, Chris. “Americans read headlines. And not much else.” The Washington Post. WP Company, 19 Mar. 2014. Web. 25 Apr. 2017.
Background: This article explores how people get their news. The majority of people only read the headlines of news articles. This means that headlines are very influential to the public’s opinion because it is the only information many are getting.
How I used it: This supports the idea that the misleading headline of the Genovese article heavily influenced many people’s perception of the murder. Most of the original readers probably only looked the headline.
4. Ecker, Ullrich K. H.; Lewandowsky, Stephan; Chang, Ee Pin; Pillai, Rekha Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, Vol 20(4), Dec 2014, 323-335.
Background: This study showed how headlines can can be misleading even if they are true. It shows that headlines can influence what a reader remembers and gives them a bias.
How I used it: I used it to explain that the title of the infamous article written about Kitty mislead people and affected their perception of the event
5. Jung, Nadine, Christina Wranke, Kai Hamburger, and Markus Knauff. “How emotions affect logical reasoning: evidence from experiments with mood-manipulated participants, spider phobics, and people with exam anxiety.” Frontiers in Psychology 5 (2014): n. pag. Web.
Background: This study shows how emotion can affect our memory and how we think. Negative emotions caused participants to perform worse on cognitive tests.
How I used it: I used this to argue that negative emotions affected the ability of readers to form reasonable conclusions about the Genovese murder. The headline of the article would induce negative emotions from the reader and impair their mental function.
6. Konnikova, Maria. “How Headlines Change the Way We Think.” The New Yorker. The New Yorker, 17 Dec. 2014. Web. 25 Apr. 2017.
Background: This article gives more information about misleading headlines. Readers remember claims in headlines even if they are not proven in the article.
How I used it: This is more support for how the famous headline mislead people.
7. Latane, Bibb; Darley, John M. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol 10(3), Nov 1968, 215-221.
Background: This is the smoke filled room experiment. It showed that people were more likely to report the smoke filling the room if they were alone.
How I used it: It supports the existence of the bystander effect and shows that people look to others before deciding what to do. It shows that people act differently in a group.
8. Lenhart, Amanda. “Cell phone ownership.” Pew Research Center: Internet, Science & Tech. N.p., 18 Mar. 2012. Web. 06 Mar. 2017.
Background: This article shows that in 2009, the majority of teens had cell phones
How I used it: Since most teens had cell phones, they could have easily called the police to stop the rape at their prom but didn’t.
9. Levine, Mark , Clare Cassidy, and Gemma Brazzer. “Self-Categorization and Bystander Non-intervention: Two Experimental Studies.” N.p., n.d. Web.
Background: This study explores how people react differently based on who the victim is and who their fellow bystanders are. The study found that bystanders are more likely to take action if the victim is part of their in group. It also found that bystanders are more likely to take action if the other bystanders are part of their in group. This study helps explain why groups don’t help a victim. They can see a victim as part of another group and feel less responsibility for them. When the other bystanders are part of the out group, each person is not sure what is expected of them and often don’t do anything.
How I used it: This study helped me to understand why people don’t help someone in need. It shows how people treat someone in their group vs someone outside their group. I use it to help explain the inaction of witnesses in some cases.
10. Lickerman, Alex. “The Diffusion Of Responsibility.” Psychology Today. Sussex Publishers, 14 June 2010. Web. 25 Apr. 2017.
Background: This article explains the diffusion of responsibility. The more people that are present the less each person feels responsible for doing something.
How I used it: This is another explanation for the bystander effect.
11. Worthen, Meredith. “Kitty Genovese.” Biography.com. A&E Networks Television, 05 Apr. 2016. Web. 25 Apr. 2017.
Background: This article give information about Kitty’s early life and what she did before she was murdered.
How I used it: I used this to learn more about her earlier life.
12. HeroicImaginationTV. YouTube. YouTube, 13 May 2012. Web. 25 Apr. 2017.
Background: This video explained the murder of Kitty Genovese and gave background information to the murder.
How I used it: I used it to gain more information about the murder.
13. “Police: As many as 20 present at gang rape outside school dance.” CNN. Cable News Network, 28 Oct. 2009. Web. 25 Apr. 2017.
Background: This is a news article about a rape with bystanders. A 15 year old girl was gang raped by up to 10 people outside a high school dance. 10 other people watched without intervening or calling the police. She was found unconscious, in critical condition, by a cop. The cop was called by a person who had heard kids talking about the rape.
How I used it: I used it as an example of the bystander effect.
14. “Solomon Asch’s Experiment on Conformity.” Psychminds Everyday Psychological Discussions. N.p., 01 Sept. 2013. Web. 1 Mar. 2017.
Background: This is the Asch’s conformity experiments. They showed that even when a person is certain they have the right answer, the person will often conform to the group’s wrong answer. This is important in understanding group dynamics.
How I used it: I used this to explain why the bystander effect happens. Even when a person wants to help they look at others not helping and decide not to help also. It shows how powerful group dynamics are.
15. York Times, 26 Mar. 1964. Web. 06 Mar. 2017.
Background: This is the infamous Kitty Genovese article.
How I used it: I use the headline to show that is is misleading and would invoke negative emotion. I also use it to show how it misleads people and contains wrong information.