Bibliography -studentwriter

1 Barner-Barry, C.. Contemporary Paganism : Minority Religions in a Majoritarian America. New York, US: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005. ProQuest ebrary. Web. 26 April 2017.

Background: Christianity is the dominant religion in America. This work depicts the prioritization of christianity in america. Through government systems, social systems, and norms.

How I used it: i used this source to show how dominating christian values were by showing how Christians treated pagans and related to the general treatment of other people.


Blumenfeld, Warren J. “Christian Privilege and the Promotion of “Secular” and Not-So “Secular” Mainline Christianity in Public Schooling and in the Larger Society.” Taylor & Francis Online, 23 Nov. 2006. Web. 6 Mar. 2017.

Background: How the dominance of white male Christianity effected others who did and do not fit that identity. It hits on the oppression upon minorities it has caused. It provides evidence on how the christian identity is normalized in America, and how it is imposed upon children through schooling, normalization, and government regime.

How I used it: i used this article to show how even though the united states claims to be a secular country. the country has very christian agendas which hurt the gay community.

3 Fletcher, Jeannine Hill. “Warrants for Reconstruction: Christian Hegemony, White Supremacy.” Journal of Ecumenical Studies, vol. 51, no. 1, Winter2016, pp. 54-79. EBSCOhost,

Background: This work speaks about the correlation between white supremacy and Christianity. Basically emphasizing that when Christianity thrives, whiteness does too.

How I used it: this article helped me understand how America forms stigmas in a historical lens.


4 Hixson, Walter L.. The Myth of American Diplomacy : National Identity and U.S. Foreign Policy. New Haven, US: Yale University Press, 2008. ProQuest ebrary. Web. 26 April 2017.

Background: This work depicts how the white man thrives in America, and how America was basically built on the benefit of conserving the white male identity. This provides evidence of oppression and by using muted facts about american history.

How I used it: this article showed me how America has been violent domestically in order to help only certain citizens.

5 Hondagneu-Sotelo, P. (2010). Immigration and religion in america: Comparative and historical perspectives. Contemporary Sociology, 39(2), 139-140. Retrieved from

Background: This work emphasizes the attraction to Christianity in a number of different culture. How those cultures became christian, and why. It showcases how america  treats those who convert, and how the treatment of minorities in christianity is different to whites.

How I used it: furthered the understanding of separate religious denomination and their power.


6 Tin, Louis-Georges, ed. The Dictionary of Homophobia : A Global History of Gay & Lesbian Experience. Vancouver, US: Arsenal Pulp Press, 2008. ProQuest ebrary. Web. 26 April 2017.

Background: This is an extensive look into the experience of gay individuals thoughout the world. they are many entries from a miriad of countries. this publication was groundbreaking in its day and help legitamize gay and lesbian relatiosnhips in the public eye.

How I used it: this encyclopedia gave me more of an understanding on the gay experience globally so it would be easier to compare it to the united states policies.


7 Quittner, J. (2000, Aug 29). To live and die in grant town: Arthur warren’s murder leaves many in west virginia wondering; what price must be paid for being openly gay in rural america? The Advocate, , 21. Retrieved from


Back ground: this source helped detail a particular violent incident. Arthur Warren was a citizen in the community  and was treated as equal. His caring attitude was not reciprocated and he met his untimely death.

How I used it: I used quotes from this article to detail the unfair treatment of other identities in America.

8 Brant, Irving. “Madison: On the Separation of Church and State.” The William and Mary Quarterly, vol. 8, no. 1, 1951, pp. 4–24.,

Background: This article was about Madison’s praise for the controversial separation of church and state. This provided a legal insight on the issues discussed in my paper

How I used it: I used this article to understand the priority of being progressive that the United States seems to have.

9 Herek, Gregory M., and Kevin T. Berrill. Hate crimes: Confronting violence against lesbians and gay men. Sage, 1992.

Background: This book was written to help people understand the level of unfairness gay individuals feel in the country. there is extensive research done on the overview of the problem, the context of anti-gay violence while focusing on both victims and perpetrators.

How I used it: this book gave me more insight on the gay experience.

10 Berrill, Kevin T. “Anti-gay violence and victimization in the United States an overview.” Journal of Interpersonal Violence 5.3 (1990): 274-294.

Background: This article explains the causes for anti gay violence along with possible solutions to the hate crimes. It embodies the differentiation between different hate crime offenders such as activists verses opportunists, and exemplifies how they commit crimes of discrimination and violence, why, and where. much of the decision making when targeting certain homosexual people derive from normalized gender roles and stereotypes.

How I used it: It gave me knowledge on activists verses opportunists, and how they both are offenders of hate crimes, but their hatred stems or derives from divergent areas.

Harry, Joseph. “Conceptualizing anti-gay violence.” Journal of Interpersonal Violence 5.3 (1990): 350-358

Background: this source mentions where the hatred of homosexuals derives from as well as how it is perpetuated in society. The social stigmas that surround gay and lesbians, and how that contributed to the mindsets of those who commit hate crimes

How I used it: This allowed me to explain the stigma upon homosexuality in America.

Nardi, Peter M., and Ralph Bolton. “Gay-bashing: Violence and aggression against gay men and lesbians.” Advances in Psychology 76 (1991): 349-400

Background: this work focuses mainly on the act of committing hate crimes. The victim and the offender are both analyzed through this text. He uses sociological analysis on bigotry and how hateful people become hateful. In this work, the author opens with a hate crime survivors story, to help better understand the issue.

How I used it: This allowed me to get a better understanding of the vitcum as well as the offender.

Pilkington, Neil W., and Anthony R. D’Augelli. “Victimization of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth in community settings.” Journal of Community Psychology 23.1 (1995): 34-56.

Background: this work is in the form of a sociological study that questions the youth on gay and lesbian stigmatization. most kids had experienced some type of sexual victimization.

How I used it: Provided statistics and factual evidence of the stigma against gay people.

Cowan, Gloria, et al. “Heterosexuals’ attitudes toward hate crimes and hate speech against gays and lesbians: Old-fashioned and modern hetero sexism.” Journal of Homosexuality 49.2 (2005): 67-82.

Background: This work exemplifies the prevalence of hetero sexism and how it has now and historically resulted in hate crimes against homosexuals. The source looks at what hetero sexism is, how it is obtained, and how it is perpetuated.

How I used it: This work allowed me to find facts and statistics on the number of hate crimes, as well as evidence on the psychology behind hate crimes.

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