“You can’t see Caleb’s other wound, either.”
- Factual claim. It asserts that Caleb’s “other wound” cannot be seen, as it is an internal wound.
- We’re also being given a categorical claim. In the context, Caleb’s traumatic brain injury is being grouped with his PTSD as being a wound as well.
- It may seem hard to notice, but, through the phrase “you can’t see,” the writer is also implicitly making an ethical claim. Caleb’s struggles with PTSD–as well as with the effects of his many concussions–have went with sympathy from so few people. In short, we should feel sorry from him.
“It’s called traumatic brain injury, or TBI, from multiple concussions.”
- Definition claim. The writer is attributing this definition to Caleb’s “other wound.”
- Causal claim. TBI is caused from multiple concussions.
“In two tours, he was in at least 20 explosions—IEDs, vehicle-borne IEDs, RPGs.”
- Factual claim. The number of explosions as well as expeditions Caleb was in could be quantified. The type of weapons used against him were also specified.
- This claim also bolsters support for the claim that he has TBI.
“But there’s still a lot about brain damage that doctors, much less civilians, don’t understand.”
- An evaluative claim about the knowledge of doctors and civilians regarding brain damage;
- Somewhat irrelevant to the subject of the paragraph.
“Unlike PTSD, secondary traumatic stress doesn’t have its own entry in the DSM, though the manual does take note of it, as do many peer-reviewed studies and the Department of Veterans Affairs.”
- Comparative claim. Secondary traumatic stress is being compared to PTSD as the much-lesser-acknowledged condition.
- It also makes the factual claim that the condition is at least noted by the manual and peer-reviewed studies.
“Symptoms start at depression and alienation, including the ‘compassion fatigue’ suffered by social workers and trauma counselors.”
- Categorical claim. Groups depression, alienation, and “compassion fatigue” as symptoms of secondary traumatic stress.
“If sympathy for Caleb is a little lacking, you can imagine what little understanding exists for Brannan.”
- One of the most important evaluative claims in this article; PTSD is a condition recognized by many, but those who suffer secondary traumatic stress receive are understood by few and thus feel at fault and alienated.
- Also a comparative claim because it compares the degree of sympathy given to Caleb to that which has been given to Brannan.
- The phrase, “You can imagine,” which asks the reader to put themselves in the place of Brennan, is likely to garner more empathy from the readers.