Toivonen, Saara, and Olli Sotamaa. “Digital Distribution of Games.” Proceedings of the International Academic Conference on the Future of Game Design and Technology – Futureplay ’10, May 2010, doi:10.1145/1920778.1920806, https://dl.acm.org/doi/pdf/10.1145/1920778.1920806
Background: This article conducts a survey to get a perspective on what players like when it comes to owning their games. While describing the different factors that come into play when discussing the digital distribution of entertainment software, it showcases the differences between the hardware platforms.
How I Used It: There is evidence here through the survey that players typically prefer physical copies for various reasons I have discussed. I want to also highlight the ‘games-as-a-service’ idea with MMO’s and this research words its description better than I can. The research here also provides some details on how the industry has evolved and how it can be maintained.
Okalow, Samson. “Digital Distribution Challenges Titans of Video Game Industry – Canadian Business.” Canadian Business – Your Source For Business News, 1 Mar. 2018, https://www.canadianbusiness.com/technology-news/digital-distribution-challenges-titans-of-video-game-industry/
Background: Electronically published in 2018 but originally published in 2012, Samson Okalow gives his impressions on the industry and its shift in that time period. This outlook is just a year before the release of the current generation of consoles, so this time period was an interesting one, to say the least.
How I Used It: The perspective describes that while the console market is making the most money, the PC market has been on the digital-distribution train for almost a decade already, thanks to Valve’s platform, Steam. This was a time period before the norm of downloading the newest and biggest titles was a thing. Downloadable games were common, but for smaller titles.
Dechsakda, Sama A. “The Effects of Digital Music Distribution.” OpenSIUC, 2012, opensiuc.lib.siu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1269&context=gs_rp.
Background: Sama Dechsakda, in his research paper, discusses the history behind digital music distribution. This includes Napster, piracy, and Apple’s contributions.
How I Used It: I wanted to be more knowledgeable on the subject, for one, but I also wanted to compare Apple’s iTunes to Valve’s Steam, which are platforms that changed everything in their industry. I can also make a funny joke about how MTV played “Video Killed The Radio Star” and how it relates to iTunes, Steam, and the like. Steam killed the Disk Drive star.
Desai, Deven. “The New Steam: On Digitization, Decentralization, and Disruption.” Hein Online, 2014, heinonline.org/HOL/Page?handle=hein.journals/hastlj65&div=50&g_sent=1&casa_token=DzQ19dXzlRwAAAAA:Y1n-Yye_D-YaQ2i_Od0t5UjkNEbb8vLNt1gqH4Ff3_soSrXpYE8JmbTdZA-7M686uGuw7RJWlA&collection=journals.
Background: Deven Desai takes a look at the effects of digitization in this paper. He says that the high costs of distribution have plummeted thanks to digitization. With this he adds the idea that easy distribution through new technology decentralized different businesses. Music is an example used, since software to record and mix music allowed garage bands to put their music out there, eliminating the need for a music studio.
How I Used It: Desai’s points are valid. Digital distribution, even in other industries, has eliminated some of the old norms. Now, people with no musical talent can use the same hi-hat beat, spew profanity from their mouths, post it on Soundcloud and become a millionaire overnight. I want this piece to also help me with my discussion on piracy in the gaming industry due to digitization, but I need to go over some of the vocabulary in this source first, if I’m being honest.
Golden, Mathew. “Death of the Secondary Video-Game Market: Natural Causes, or Euthanasia?” Penn Law: Legal Scholarship Repository, 2014, scholarship.law.upenn.edu/jbl/vol16/iss4/4/.
Background: I am only interested in parts 1 through 3 for this source, so I will only cover those parts. This source covers the slow, but inevitable death of GameStop, a major retailer for games as well as an easy source for second-hand gaming. Other factors of GameStop’s death is discussed.
How I Used It: I want to show how GameStop’s inevitable demise will be a huge detriment in the preservation of physical video games. Without them, it will be hard for new consumers to get into second-hand gaming. Retro game stores are few and far between in many areas, and GameStop provides an okay front for this type of distribution. Despite some of their practices, they are one of the pillars holding physical distribution up.
McCubbin, Michael. “The Aftermath of Aftermath: The Impact of Digital Music Distribution on the Recording Industry.” Hein Online, 2012, heinonline.org/HOL/Page?handle=hein.journals%2Fplr10&id=335&collection=journals&index=.
Background: This piece goes over the digitization of music an how it affects the industry. I was curious on how the MP3 was developed and utilized.
How I Used It: This source is mostly being used for background knowledge on the subject. The digitization of music is important when trying to discuss the digitization of video games. I needed a history lesson with some details thrown in.
Waldfogel, Joel. “How Digitization Has Created a Golden Age of Music, Movies, Books, and Television.” Journal of Economic Perspectives, vol. 31, no. 3, 2017, https://www.aeaweb.org/articles?id=10.1257/jep.31.3.195.
Background: This source discusses how profits and products are affected by digitization on multiple fronts. It also highlights the distribution bottleneck that has been relaxed due to digitization.
How I Used It: This source shows some of the upsides and downsides of digitization for other media. This is good for me because other media can easily be enjoyed. Music is a file, movies are a file, all you need is a basic personal computer. For gaming, certain games were built to run on specific hardware. The PlayStation 3 is known for being difficult to develop for, since the internal architecture is different. What will happen in 40 years when the PS3 is obsolete and companies do not see profitability in rereleasing their old PS3 games on the digital stores for PC and new consoles?
Shaw, Adrienne. “What Is Video Game Culture? Cultural Studies and Game Studies.” Games and Culture, vol. 5, no. 4, Oct. 2010, pp. 403–424, doi:10.1177/1555412009360414, https://drive.google.com/open?id=1TXqoenxSjjxe_REqOLDZSrU7nt4lVLKd.
Background: This source takes a look at video game culture and what makes it what it is. Adrienne Shaw relates the information provided to marketing, journalism, and the matter in cohesion with gaming culture.
How I Used It: I needed to show that gaming is a culture and games are important to people. If gamers can’t play a game because the hardware is impossible to find and it isn’t being distributed anymore, gamers will be upset. If this weren’t the case, I wouldn’t be arguing for the preservation of media.
Suominen, Jaakko. “Retrogaming community memory and discourses of digital history.” Navigating Landscapes of Mediated Memory. Brill, 2011. 143-154, https://brill.com/view/book/edcoll/9781848880900/BP000015.xml.
Background: This source highlights retro gaming and its definition. It can mean newer games with elements and mechanics that mimic games from the 1970s and 1980s, or the collecting, reselling, and hunting, of classic video games.
How I Used It: I am using this source in combination with source #10 to support my point that retro gaming is common and becoming popular since video gaming now has almost half a century of history. The rebirth of gaming (at least how I see it when looking at the history) is at the launch of the Nintendo Entertainment System, which was in 1983, but gaming before then can be dated as 47+ years before the current year of 2020. Preservation is important and should be acknowledged going forward with the industry.
Suominen, Jaakko. “The Past as the Future? Nostalgia and Retrogaming in Digital Culture.” Research Gate, 2007, https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/The-Past-as-the-Future-Nostalgia-and-Retrogaming-in-Suominen/9594059f378fd5c427eb151933429ec9509c8efa.
Background: Similar to source #9, this source gives a perspective on retro gaming as a culture and what it means. It also describes retro gaming as a history, which I found interesting.
How I Used It: I am using this source to support my points from source #9 above. Preservation of the media through keeping physical copies safe, as well as keeping a market for them so they are in the hands of the people, is important. Combined with points made on how gaming is a culture, this can preserve the history of said culture before it is too late.